(thiamine, moral vitamin)
Vitamin B1 is one of the first vitamins, whose chemical composition and properties were discovered. Lack of this vitamin in the human diet causes the disease beriberi, which is characterized by rapid loss of body weight and neurological derangement. In the 19th and early 20th century, beriberi was the cause of death of hundreds to thousands of people, who were used mainly polished rice as food. During the processing and refining of rice, vitamin B1 remains in the shell.
Vitamin B1 was firstly extracted in 1926 , and its chemical structure was determined by Williams in thirtyes of the 20th century. Soon after that it was achieved its chemical synthesis. Because of its beneficial effects on the nervous system it is called the moral vitamin.